The Project Approach: An ERIC Bibliography of Books, Documents, and Journal Articles

ERIC Documents

ED413036 PS023951
Bringing Reggio Emilia Home: An Innovative Approach to Early Childhood Education.
Cadwell, Louise Boyd
1997
160p.; Foreword by Lella Gandini.
ISBN: 0-8077-3660-0; 0-8077-3661-9
Available From: Teacher's College Press, 1234 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027; phone: 800-575-6566 (Cloth: ISBN-0-8077-3661-9, $43; Paper: ISBN-0-8077-3660-0, $19.95).

Document Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR98

This book is a collection of stories describing the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education, based on the author's internship in the Italian preschools and a 4-year adaptation effort in one American school. The book's prologue describes the author's work before using the Reggio Emilia approach, the history of Reggio Emilia, the fundamentals of the approach, and the College School of Webster Groves, Missouri where the approach was adapted to a U.S. setting. Chapter 1, "The Journey," details the initial exposure to the Reggio approach, securing an internship, and typical days in the Diana School in Italy. Chapter 2, "The Pleasures and Power of Playing with Materials," discusses the variety of materials available to students and tells stories describing projects children use to build an expanding awareness and understanding of the natural world. Chapter 3, "The Children and the Trees," describes how Reggio Emilia educators define and develop projects, and conveys the story of the children's study of trees and plants. Chapter 4, "Returning Home to St. Louis," describes the move to St. Louis to adapt the Reggio Approach for use in the College School, the importance of spoken language and conversations with children, and the use of visual arts. Chapter 5, "Transforming Space, Time, and Relations," deals with structural and other changes in the preschool space and working with colleagues and parents. Chapter 6, "The Children and the Garden," describes a project on plants which extended from preschool through kindergarten, conversations around the project and grow table designs, children's journals, and sculptures. (Contains 46 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Childrens Art; Childrens Writing; Classroom Design; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; *Educational Innovation; Foreign Countries; Instructional Materials; Journal Writing; Language Skills; Learning Activities; Personal Narratives; Plants (Botany); Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Methods; Visual Arts; Young Children

Identifiers: Italy (Reggio Emilia); Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach


ED407188 PS025523
SheJi HuoDong JiaoFa (The Project Approach). ERIC Digest.
Katz, Lilian G.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.
Mar 1997
7p.; For English version, see ED 368 509.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: RR93002007
Report No: EDO-PS-97-8
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: Chinese
Document Type: ERIC PRODUCT (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP97

A project is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, usually undertaken by a group of children within a class. The goal of a project is to learn more about a topic rather than to find answers to questions posed by a teacher. Project work is complementary to the systematic parts of a curriculum. Whereas systematic instruction helps children acquire skills, addresses children's deficiencies, and stresses extrinsic motivation, project work provides opportunities to apply skills, addresses children's proficiencies, and stresses intrinsic motivation. Projects differ from themes, which are broad topics such as "seasons," and units, which consist of preplanned lessons and activities on particular topics. In themes and units, children usually have little role in specifying the questions to be answered as the work proceeds. This is not the case in projects. Activities engaged in during project work include drawing, writing, reading, recording observations, and interviewing experts. Projects can be implemented in three stages. In Phase 1, "Getting Started," the teacher and children select and refine the topic to be studied. Phase 2, "Field Work," consists of investigating, drawing, constructing models, recording, and exploring. Phase 3, "Culminating and Debriefing Events," includes preparing and presenting reports of results. These characteristics of projects are exemplified in a project in which kindergartners collected 31 different types of balls. After collecting the balls, the class examined various characteristics of the balls, such as shape, surface texture, circumference, composition, weight, resistance, and use. This project involved children in a variety of tasks and gave children the opportunity to learn a new vocabulary as their knowledge of a familiar object deepened. (BC)

Descriptors: Activity Units; *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; *Group Activities; *Learning Activities; Student Motivation; *Student Participation; *Teacher Student Relationship; Thematic Approach

Identifiers: ERIC Digests; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED407074 PS025116
Engaging Children's Minds: The Project Approach.
Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia C.
1989
189p.
ISBN: 0-89391-534-3
Available From: Ablex Publishing Corporation, P.O. Box 5297, Greenwich, CT 06831; phone: 203-661-7602; fax: 203-661-0792 (clothbound: ISBN-0-89391-534-3, $73.25; paperback: ISBN-0-89391-543-2, $39.50. Individual orders prepaid with credit card or personal check receive 40% discount on cloth edition and 20% discount on paper edition. Add $5 shipping for cloth edition and $4 shipping for paper edition).
EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: BOOK (010); NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP97

A project is an in-depth study of a particular topic that one or more children undertake, and consists of exploring the topic or theme such as "building a house" over a period of days or weeks. This book introduces the project approach and suggests applications and examples of this approach in action. Chapters are: (1) "Profile of the Project Approach," defining the approach and describing how project work complements other parts of the preschool curriculum; (2) "Research and Principles of Practice," discussing the conceptual basis for a project approach; (3) "Project Work in Action," illustrating the variety of project work; (4) "Features of the Project Approach," presenting guidelines for project topic selection, types of project activities, choices children make in project work, the teacher's role, and the three phases of project work; (5) "Teacher Planning," focusing on selecting a topic, making a topic web, deciding on a project's scope, and using five criteria for selecting and focusing on project topics; (6) "Getting Projects Started: Phase I," detailing ways to engage children's interest, initiate the introductory discussion, organize activities for early stages of extended projects, and involve parents; (7) "Projects in Progress: Phase II," discussing ways to maximize children's learning, interest, and motivation; (8) "Consolidating Projects: Phase III," presenting various approaches to concluding a project, such as making presentations to other classes or evaluating the project; and (9) "The Project Approach in Perspective," identifying the project approach as a complement and supplement to other aspects of the curriculum while giving teachers the opportunity to attend equally to social and intellectual development. Appendices present project descriptions, project guidelines, and a checklist for recording Missouri State Competencies applied in the course of project work. Contains about 140 references. (KDFB)

Descriptors: Active Learning; Child Development; Class Activities; Early Childhood Education; Instructional Innovation; *Learning Activities; Parent Participation; Primary Education; Student Motivation; *Student Projects; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods; *Young Children

Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Task Engagement


ED399066 PS024500
Children as Learners: A Developmental Approach.
Katz, Lilian G.
Jul 1996
15p.; Keynote Address presented at the Conference on Collaborative Teaching and Learning in the Early Years Curriculum (11th, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, July 11-13, 1996).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN97

This paper outlines 22 principles of practice that serve as criteria by which to judge the developmental appropriateness of an early childhood curriculum. The principles lead to the assertion that young children as learners are greatly supported when a "project approach" is used--e.g., when their early childhood education experience includes opportunities for investigations of phenomena in their environments. Criteria of appropriateness of curricula and pedagogy are discussed, along with explanations of the developmental approach to curricula and teaching practices. The 22 principles of a project or developmental approach include: (1) taking into account those aspects of learning that change with the age and experience of the learner; (2) taking into account two equally important dimensions of development--normative and dynamic; and (3) children's dispositions to be interested, engaged, absorbed, and involved in intellectual effort are strengthened when they have ample opportunity to work on a topic or investigations over a period of time. (BGC)

Descriptors: Child Development; Cognitive Style; Cooperation; Curriculum; *Curriculum Design; *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; Foreign Countries; Learning Processes; Learning Strategies; *Learning Theories; *Teaching Methods

Identifiers: Developmentally Appropriate Programs; *Developmental Theory; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED394744 PS024310
Teaching Young Children about Native Americans. ERIC Digest.
Reese, Debbie
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, Ill.
May 1996
3p.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: RR93002007
Report No: EDO-PS-96-3
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (051); ERIC PRODUCT (071); ERIC DIGESTS (SELECTED) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP96
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners

Noting that the terms "Native American" and "American Indian" are both legitimately used to refer to the indigenous people of North America, this digest identifies stereotypes about Native Americans that children gain from media portrayals and classroom role playing, and suggests strategies for teachers to use to counter stereotyped portrayals and to reflect cultural diversity among Native Americans. Stereotypes are perpetuated by television, movies, and children's literature when these media depict Native Americans as uncivilized savages or as romanticized heroes. Many teaching materials and children's books present a generalized image of Native American people with little regard for differences among tribes. In their classrooms, teachers can use specific positive strategies to counter these stereotypes and generalized images. Suggested strategies are to: (1) provide knowledge about contemporary Native Americans; (2) prepare units about specific tribes; (3) use books that show contemporary children of all cultures engaged in their usual daily activities; (4) obtain posters that show Native American children in contemporary contexts; (5) use dolls with different skin colors in the dramatic play area; (6) cook ethnic foods; (7) be specific about which tribes use particular items when discussing cultural artifacts; (8) critique a Thanksgiving poster depicting stereotyped pilgrim and Indian figures; and (9) at Thanksgiving, shift the focus away from reenacting the "First Thanksgiving" to items children can be thankful for in their own lives. Besides engaging in these positive practices, teachers can avoid: using over-generalized books and lesson plans; using a "tourist curriculum" that teaches predominantly through celebrations and holidays; presenting sacred activities in trivial ways; and introducing the topic of Native Americans on Columbus Day or at Thanksgiving. (BC)

Descriptors: *American Indian Culture; American Indian History; *American Indians; Books; *Childrens Literature; Classroom Techniques; Cultural Awareness; Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; *Learning Strategies; Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Teachers; *Stereotypes; Tribes; Young Children

Identifiers: ERIC Digests; *Native Americans; Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Thanksgiving


ED393608 PS024196
The Contribution of Documentation to the Quality of Early Childhood Education. ERIC Digest.
Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia C.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, Ill.
Apr 1996
3p.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: RR93002007
Report No: EDO-PS-96-2
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: ERIC PRODUCT (071); ERIC DIGESTS (SELECTED) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG96

Documentation, in the forms of observation of children and record keeping, has long been practiced in many early childhood programs, particularly in the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. Documentation typically includes samples of children's work at several stages of completion; photographs showing work in progress; comments by teachers working with the children; transcriptions of children's discussions; and parents' comments. High-quality documentation of children's work contributes to the quality of early childhood programs in at least six ways. First, documentation enhances children's learning. The processes of preparing and displaying documentaries of children's efforts provides a kind of re-visiting of experience during which new understandings are clarified and strengthened. Second, careful and attractive documentary displays convey to children that their efforts are taken seriously. Third, documentation encourages continuous teacher planning and evaluation of work with children. When teachers and children plan together, activities are likely to be undertaken with greater interest and representational skill than when children plan alone or when teachers are unaware of challenges facing the children. Fourth, documentation fosters parent appreciation and participation. Through learning about the work in which their children are engaged, parents may contribute ideas for activities to teachers and their own time in the classroom. Fifth, teacher research and process awareness is fostered by documentation. As teachers examine and document children's work, their understanding of children's development is deepened in ways not likely to occur from inspecting test results. Sixth, children's learning is made visible through documentation, which provides information about children's progress that cannot be obtained from standardized tests. When children are engaged in absorbing and complex projects, documentation can make a contribution in these six ways. (BC)

Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Early Childhood Education; Parent Participation; *Portfolio Assessment; Preschool Children; *Student Projects; *Teacher Student Relationship

Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Reggio Emilia Approach


ED392513 PS023527
Will a Project Approach to Learning Provide Children Opportunities To Do Purposeful Reading and Writing, as Well as Provide Opportunities for Authentic Learning in Other Curriculum Areas?
Bryson, Eileen
[1994]
21p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Alaska
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL96

The project approach to learning includes a focus on in-depth study of a topic, along with teaching style, learning style, and theme. In contrast to a thematic approach, the project approach encourages children to be actively engaged in their own studies, with teachers acting as guides and facilitators. In the project approach, students use subject matter areas as tools in their chosen investigations. Katz and Chard's "Engaging Children's Minds: The Project Approach" is drawn upon as a starting point for this case study. First grade students were involved in two units: (1) a thematic unit involving dinosaurs; and (2) a project-based unit about frogs. Comparisons were made between the two experiences. Particular attention was given to children's enthusiasm for the work; the reading, writing, and learning in other curriculum areas; and analysis of differences in the two learning approaches. The results showed that children exhibited greater enthusiasm for the collaborative work in the project approach than in the thematic unit. Children were also more involved in reading and research in the frog project than the dinosaur unit, and made many more decisions about their own learning. Children who use these skills in meaningful, project-based situations maintain positive outlooks toward learning, effecting learning in later years. Contains 11 references. (BGC)

Descriptors: Case Studies; Communication Skills; Comparative Analysis; Cooperation; *Curriculum Design; Dramatic Play; Early Childhood Education; Integrated Curriculum; Interpersonal Competence; Reading Ability; Reading Skills; *Student Projects; Teaching Methods; *Thematic Approach; Verbal Communication; Writing (Composition); Writing Skills; Young Children

Identifiers: Collaborative Learning; Katz (Lilian G); *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED389583 SE057226
Splitting Reexamined: Results from a Three-Year Longitudinal Study of Children in Grades Three to Five.
Confrey, Jere; Scarano, Grace Hotchkiss
Oct 1995
8p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (17th, Columbus, OH, October 21-24, 1995). For entire conference proceedings, see SE 057 177.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143); CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR96

This paper is a report on the results of a 3-year teaching experiment conducted in Ithaca, New York, introducing students to the concepts of multiplication, division, and ratio as a trio, and to ratio and proportion in a project-based curriculum with heterogeneous grouping. Fractions were introduced as a subset of ratio and proportion. The paper outlines curricular changes in grades 3-5 and focuses on the major representational forms used by the students including: Venn diagrams, daisy chains, contingency tables, tables of values, dot drawings, two-dimensional graphs, and ratio boxes. Also discussed is the role these tools play in the development of students' understandings of the multiplicative world. Results show that these 10- and 11-year-olds exceeded the comparative performance of 14- and 15-year-olds on ratio and proportion test items. Contains 14 references. (Author/MKR)

Descriptors: *Concept Formation; *Division; Elementary Education; Grade 3; Grade 4; Grade 5; Longitudinal Studies; Mathematics Instruction; *Multiplication; *Ratios (Mathematics)

Identifiers: *Representations (Mathematics)


ED389474 PS023972
Encouraging Creativity in Early Childhood Classrooms. ERIC Digest.
Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Springate, Kay Wright
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, Ill.
Dec 1995
3p.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: RR93002007
Report No: EDO-PS-95-14
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); ERIC PRODUCT (071); ERIC DIGESTS (SELECTED) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR96

This digest considers teacher- and child-initiated strategies for enhancing young children's self-expression and creativity. When teachers think about art and creative activities for children, it is important for them to consider that young children: (1) are developmentally capable of classroom experiences which call for (and practice) higher level thinking skills, including analysis, synthesis, and evaluation; (2) need to express ideas through different expressive avenues and symbolic media; (3) learn through meaningful activities in which different subject areas are integrated; and (4) benefit from in-depth exploration and long-term projects. Given what is known about young children's learning and their competence to express their visions of themselves, classrooms and classroom activities can be modified in several ways to support children's emerging creativity. First, class schedules should provide children with unhurried time to explore. Children should not be artificially rotated from one activity to another. Second, children's work spaces should inspire them. Children's work is fostered by a space that has natural light, harmonious colors, and comfortable work areas. Third, teachers can provide children with wonderful collections of resource materials that might be bought, found, or recycled. Fourth, the classroom atmosphere should reflect the adults' encouragement and acceptance of mistakes, risk-taking, innovation, and uniqueness, along with a certain amount of mess, noise, and freedom. In order to create such a climate, teachers must give themselves permission to try artistic activity. Finally, teachers can provide occasions for intense encounters between children and their inner or outer world. Children's best work involves such encounters. (BC)

Descriptors: Art Materials; Class Activities; Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; Creative Activities; *Creative Development; *Creative Expression; *Creativity; Early Childhood Education; Teacher Student Relationship; *Young Children

Identifiers: ERIC Digests; Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Reggio Emilia Approach


ED381264 PS023164
Early Childhood Education and Beyond: Can We Adapt the Practices and Philosophies from the Preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy into Our Elementary Schools in America?
Firlik, Russ
Mar 1995
14p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG95

The model presented by the preschools in Reggio Emilia, Italy, is one of cooperation and collaborations among teachers, parents, and children; curriculum based on the "project approach," and constructivist learning philosophy, which states that children construct their knowledge and values as a result of interactions with and action on the physical and social world. American early childhood educators and researchers have expressed notable interest in the Reggio Emilia programs; however differences in the American and European thinking attitudes within a macro society, and cultural conventions make adapting or transporting methods with European roots difficult at best. An example of differences in thinking would be the way Americans have discarded European traditions of evaluating ideas and systems of thought according to "intellectual consistency" or aesthetic appeal. Cultural differences include: individualism versus collectivism; the American emphasis on "equalitarianism"; forms of activity of doing rather than being; the separation of work and play; and the dichotomy between competition and affiliation. Several elements need to be in place in American schools before any successful transitions from preschool to elementary school can take place, including preparation of children for such transitions, involvement of parents in each step of the process, and continuity of program through developmentally diverse and age/individual appropriate curricula. Although the Reggio Emilia schools do not have administrators or head teachers, their programs support the administrator's practical role in promoting development. Administrators must promote teachers and children to be curriculum makers; invite parents to be part of the classroom; allow time for observing the project process; allow planning time for teachers; and encourage and support practitioners by giving them time to develop. Contains nine references. (HTH)

Descriptors: Administrator Role; Comparative Analysis; Constructivism (Learning); *Cultural Differences; Educational Attitudes; Elementary Education; Parent Participation; Preschool Education; School Readiness; *Teaching Methods

Identifiers: Developmentally Appropriate Programs; Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach


ED380238 PS023152
El Metodo Llamado Proyecto (The Project Approach). ERIC Digest.
Katz, Lilian G.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, Ill.
Dec 1994
3p.; Spanish translation of ED 368 509.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: RR93002007
Report No: EDO-PS-94-16
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: Spanish
Document Type: ERIC PRODUCT (071); ERIC DIGESTS (SELECTED) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL95

A project is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, usually undertaken by a group of children within a class. The goal of a project is to learn more about a topic rather than to find answers to questions posed by a teacher. Project work is complementary to the systematic parts of a curriculum. Whereas systematic instruction helps children acquire skills, addresses children's deficiencies, and stresses extrinsic motivation, project work provides opportunities to apply skills, addresses children's proficiencies, and stresses intrinsic motivation. Projects differ from themes, which are broad topics such as "seasons," and units, which consist of preplanned lessons and activities on particular topics. In themes and units, children usually have little role in specifying the questions to be answered as the work proceeds. This is not the case in projects. Activities engaged in during project work include drawing, writing, reading, recording observations, and interviewing experts. Projects can be implemented in three stages. In Phase 1, "Getting Started," the teacher and children select and refine the topic to be studied. Phase 2, "Field Work," consists of investigating, drawing, constructing models, recording, and exploring. Phase 3, "Culminating and Debriefing Events," includes preparing and presenting reports of results. These characteristics of projects are exemplified in a project in which kindergartners collected 31 different types of balls. After collecting the balls, the class examined various characteristics of the balls, such as shape, surface texture, circumference, composition, weight, resistance, and use. This project involved children in a variety of tasks and gave children the opportunity to learn a new vocabulary as their knowledge of a familiar object deepened. (BC)

Descriptors: Activity Units; *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; *Group Activities; *Learning Activities; Student Motivation; *Student Participation; *Teacher Student Relationship; Thematic Approach

Identifiers: ERIC Digests; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED376991 PS022936
Integrate, Don't Isolate Computers in the Early Childhood Curriculum. ERIC Digest.
Davis, Bernadette Caruso; Shade, Daniel D.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, Ill.
Dec 1994
3p.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: DERR93002007
Report No: EDO-PS-94-17
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055); ERIC PRODUCT (071); ERIC DIGESTS (SELECTED) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR95

When computers are relegated to a single room in a school where children use them only occasionally, their potential impact on children's learning is minimized. When computers are integrated into the curriculum and are applied to real problems, however, children gain the ability to use computers as natural tools for learning. For example, when a teacher chooses a topic for an integrated study project, the class will define relevant concepts related to that topic and choose activities to explore those concepts. Sometimes computers will be the most appropriate tool for exploring the concepts. As they work on their project, children can use computer programs to construct stories with pictures, labels, and voice recordings; gather information from CD-ROM encyclopedias; compose and illustrate stories; and write letters to experts. Children can also use microworlds, or programs that help them discover concepts and cause-effect relationships, and serve as a bridge between hands-on experience and abstract learning. Teachers help children learn in computer-enriched classrooms by filling several roles. Initially, teachers serve as instructors to children in the use of computers. Later, as children gain more experience, the teacher's role moves to that of a coach. By using computers themselves, teachers can also serve as models to children Finally, teachers must be critics of computer software, learning to select the best software to enhance children's development. In all cases, teachers must remember that without proper integration of computers into the curriculum, the benefits of technology to children's learning cannot be fully achieved. Contains 12 references. (BC)

Descriptors: Class Activities; Computer Assisted Instruction; *Computers; Computer Software; *Computer Uses in Education; Early Childhood Education; *Integrated Activities; *Integrated Curriculum; *Learning Activities; Microworlds; *Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship

Identifiers: ERIC Digests; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED375986 PS022934
Reflections on the Reggio Emilia Approach. Perspectives from ERIC/EECE: A Monograph Series No. 6.
Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Cesarone, Bernard, Ed.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, Ill.
Dec 1994
135p.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: RR93002007
Available From: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, 805 West Pennsylvania Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-4897 (Catalog No. 215, $10, plus $1.50 shipping and handling).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
Document Type: BOOK (010); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); ERIC PRODUCT (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR95

This monograph consists of seven papers that discuss issues related to the teaching approach used in the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. The papers are: (1) "Images from the World: Study Seminar on the Experience of the Municipal Infant-Toddler Centers and the Preprimary Schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy" (Lilian G. Katz), which identifies problems that warrant consideration by American educators trying to adapt the Reggio Emilia approach to schools in the United States; (2) "Images from the United States: Using Ideas from the Reggio Emilia Experience with American Educators" (Brenda Fyfe), which shares insights of teachers in the St. Louis, Missouri, area as they implement the Reggio Emilia approach in their classrooms; (3) "Reggio Emilia: Its Visions and Its Challenges for Educators in the United States" (Rebecca New), which notes the similarities and differences in the way teachers in Italy and the United States perform their daily work; (4) "Different Media, Different Languages" (George Forman), which explains the role of graphic "languages" in children's learning; (5) "Staff Development in Reggio Emilia" (Carlina Rinaldi), which explains the Reggio Emilia schools' unique approach to staff development; (6) "An Integrated Art Approach in a Preschool" (Giordana Rabitti), which details a case study of a children's project conducted in one of the preprimary schools in Reggio Emilia; and (7) "Promoting Collaborative Learning in the Early Childhood Classroom: Teachers' Contrasting Conceputalizations in Two Communities" (Carolyn Edwards, Lella Gandini, and John Nimmo), which examines the beliefs of teachers in Italy and the United States about their roles and about the nature of children as learners. A reference list is appended to some of the papers. The monograph also contains a bibliography of 22 items on the Reggio Emilia approach selected from the ERIC database, and a list of additional resources on the Reggio Emilia approach. (BC)

Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies; *Art Activities; *Cultural Differences; Foreign Countries; Freehand Drawing; Infants; Preschool Children; *Preschool Education; Preschool Teachers; *Program Implementation; Staff Development; Teacher Attitudes; *Teaching Methods; Toddlers

Identifiers: Collaborative Learning; Italy; Program Adaptation; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach; United States


ED368509 PS022331
The Project Approach. ERIC Digest.
Katz, Lilian G.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, Ill.
Apr 1994
3p.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Contract No: RR93002007
Report No: EDO-PS-94-6
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: ERIC PRODUCT (071); ERIC DIGESTS (SELECTED) (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG94

A project is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, usually undertaken by a group of children within a class. The goal of a project is to learn more about a topic rather than to find answers to questions posed by a teacher. Project work is complementary to the systematic parts of a curriculum. Whereas systematic instruction helps children acquire skills, addresses children's deficiencies, and stresses extrinsic motivation, project work provides opportunities to apply skills, addresses children's proficiencies, and stresses intrinsic motivation. Projects differ from themes, which are broad topics such as "seasons," and units, which consist of preplanned lessons and activities on particular topics. In themes and units, children usually have little role in specifying the questions to be answered as the work proceeds. This is not the case in projects. Activities engaged in during project work include drawing, writing, reading, recording observations, and interviewing experts. Projects can be implemented in three stages. In Phase 1, "Getting Started," the teacher and children select and refine the topic to be studied. Phase 2, "Field Work," consists of investigating, drawing, constructing models, recording, and exploring. Phase 3, "Culminating and Debriefing Events," includes preparing and presenting reports of results. These characteristics of projects are exemplified in a project in which kindergartners collected 31 different types of balls. After collecting the balls, the class examined various characteristics of the balls, such as shape, surface texture, circumference, composition, weight, resistance, and use. This project involved children in a variety of tasks and gave children the opportunity to learn a new vocabulary as their knowledge of a familiar object deepened. (BC)

Descriptors: Activity Units; *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; *Group Activities; *Learning Activities; Student Motivation; *Student Participation; *Teacher Student Relationship; Thematic Approach

Identifiers: ERIC Digests; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED358921 PS021374
Early Childhood Curriculum Resource Handbook. A Practical Guide for Teaching Early Childhood (Pre-K-3).
Hendrick, Joanne, Ed.; And Others
1993
420p.; Part of a series of teacher resource handbooks.
ISBN: 0-527-20809-4
Available From: Kraus International Publications, 358 Saw Mill River Road, Millwood, NY 10546-1035 ($19.95).
Document Not Available from EDRS.
Document Type: NON-CLASSROOM MATERIAL (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIENOV93
Target Audience: Teachers; Administrators; Practitioners

This guide provides curriculum developers, education faculty, veteran teachers, and student teachers with basic information on the background of early childhood curriculum, as well as current information on publications, standards, and special materials for early childhood classrooms. Following an introduction, the material is presented in 14 chapters by different contributors. Chapter 1 discusses the history and development of present-day curriculum and the directions it is taking. Chapter 2 is a practical guide to creating or revising an early childhood curriculum. Funding sources for curriculum projects are listed in chapter 3, and chapter 4 outlines the content of integrated early childhood education. Chapter 5 describes state guidelines for early childhood education, and chapter 6 lists department of education addresses and publication titles for each state. Classroom assessment is the focus of chapter 7, and chapter 8 consists of annotated lists of curriculum guides for prekindergarten through grade three. Chapter 9 discusses the project approach in early childhood curriculum. Chapter 10 covers trade books, and chapter 11 lists sources of textbooks, software, videos, and other curriculum materials. Chapter 12 lists textbooks and materials adopted by New Mexico and West Virginia, two states with policies specific to the adoption of textbooks in early childhood education. Chapter 13 provides an index to reviews of early childhood textbooks and supplementary materials. Chapter 14 lists subscribers of the Kraus Development Library, a source of curriculum guides in early childhood education. A reference list is provided with some of the chapters. The appendix reprints sections of two exemplary curriculum guides. (TJQ)

Descriptors: *Curriculum Development; *Curriculum Guides; *Early Childhood Education; Financial Support; *Instructional Development; *Instructional Materials; Integrated Curriculum; Media Selection; Reading Material Selection; *Resource Materials; State Curriculum Guides; State Departments of Education; Student Evaluation; Textbook Selection

Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard); State Level Textbook Adoption


ED340518 PS020272
The Project Approach.
Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia D.
Feb 1992
27p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); EVALUATIVE REPORT (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY92

This document proposes the project approach as one element of early childhood education that can function in a complementary relationship to other aspects of the early childhood curriculum. The term "project" is defined as an extended investigation of a topic that is of interest to participating children and judged worthy of attention by their teachers. Projects involve the application of a variety of intellectual, academic, and social skills and competencies. The project approach builds self-confidence, encourages creativity and other dispositions, and offers opportunities for children and parents to work closely together in support of the school program. The theoretical rationale for the project approach is based both on a specific view of the main goals of education and on a developmental approach to implementing those goals. The goals are: (1) the construction and acquisition of worthwhile knowledge; (2) the development of a wide variety of basic intellectual and social skills; (3) the strengthening of desirable dispositions; and (4) the engendering of positive feelings in children about themselves as learners and as participants in group endeavors. Each of these goals is defined, and the principles of practice they imply are then discussed in terms of what is understood about young children's development and learning. Guidelines for implementing project work are provided and a model of a specific project is presented. (SH)

Descriptors: *Curriculum Design; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Principles; *Educational Theories; Experiential Learning; Instructional Innovation; Integrated Curriculum; Learning Activities; Skill Development; *Student Projects; Teacher Role; *Teaching Methods; *Thematic Approach

Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED304208 PS017796
"What You Give Is What You Get."
Lee, Marjorie W.; And Others
12 Nov 1988
26p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (Anaheim, CA, November 12, 1988).
Sponsoring Agency: Howard Univ., Washington, D.C.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143); CONFERENCE PAPER (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL89

In its three parts, this presentation: (1) describes five aspects of James Coleman's concept of "social capital"; (2) describes how the concept of social capital was used to develop a questionnaire for assessing teachers' investment of emotional self (personality, warmth, enthusiasm, etc.) in caregiving; and (3) provides related information about aspects of a research project based on the conceptualization and use of the questionnaire. Defined are five components of teachers' social capital: attention, personal interest, intensity of involvement, intimacy or closeness, and persistence or continuity over time. These characteristics are seen as lying at the core of successful developmental education programs for young children. The questionnaire was designed to answer the questions: (1) To what extent do early childhood teachers report investment of social capital with each student? (2) Are self-reported information and observational data consistent for 20 percent of the subjects? Each component of social capital was delineated in terms of Child Development Associate (CDA) functional areas. The questionnaire was field-tested in two metropolitan areas. The concluding portion of the presentation includes a brief overview of the literature on social capital; discusses results of efforts to establish the instrument's reliability and validity; and depicts expected outcomes of the project. (RH)

Descriptors: *Child Caregivers; *Classification; *Competency Based Teacher Education; Content Validity; Early Childhood Education; *Intimacy; Questionnaires; Reliability; Teacher Evaluation; *Teacher Student Relationship; *Test Construction

Identifiers: Child Development Associate; *Social Capital


ED279407 PS016344
Early Education: What Should Young Children Be Doing?
Katz, Lilian G.
1987
22p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); REVIEW LITERATURE (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL87

Contrasting academic and intellectual approaches to preschool programs, this review of current research and discussion of implications for improving educational practices, identifies conditions of children's environments that facilitate their development. The review centers on risks related to pressuring young children to acquire academic concepts and skills, including the possibility that early academic pressure may undermine the development of dispositions (i.e., characteristic ways of responding to experience across types of situations) to use acquired skills, may result in the use of a single teaching method and curriculum, and may increase children's feelings of incompetence. It is pointed out that the implementation of a "pushed down" elementary school curriculum reduces young children's opportunities to become engaged in interactive processes, processes known to be important for learning among young children. As an alternative to the academic approach, an interactive context for early learning is discussed in terms of the development of communicative competence, of the disposition to become deeply interested in an activity or concern, and of social competence guided, as needed, by teachers with specialized training in helping young children maximize the educative potential of interaction. The discussion of implications for preschool programs centers on the value of an intellectually oriented, project-based curriculum which strengthens children's dispositions to observe, experiment, inquire, and reconstruct aspects of their environment. (RH)

Descriptors: Early Childhood Education; *Educational Malpractice; *Educational Objectives; Educational Practices; *Intellectual Experience; Interpersonal Competence; Learning; *Preschool Curriculum; *Social Development; *Student Projects; Teacher Role; Teaching Methods; Young Children

Identifiers: Academic Stress; *Dispositions (Psychology)



ED229944 EC151953
Family, Infant, and Toddler (FIT) Guide. A Model for Rural Family-Implemented Educational Programs.
Carr, Ann B., Ed.; And Others
George Peabody Coll. for Teachers, Nashville Tenn. John F. Kennedy Center for Research on Education and Human Development.
Jun 1982
154p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Tennessee
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT83

The manual describes the Family, Infant, and Toddler Project for rural handicapped preschoolers and their families. The project, based on an ecological perspective, has three goals: to develop a demonstration service program, to increase the pool of qualified personnel, and to expand educational services to preschool aged mentally retarded children and their families in rural areas. Techniques used in establishing the program in rural communities are described. Referral, screening, and evaluation procedures (which include psychological and educational evaluation as well as family interviews) are described. The operation and design of the rural educational clinic are summarized in terms of facilities, staffing patterns, scheduling, liaison, program planning for families, and record keeping. Extensive appendixes include sample letters and forms, sample screening and evaluation reports, and parent interview summaries. (CL)

Descriptors: Clinics; *Demonstration Programs; *Disabilities; Parent Education; Preschool Education; Program Descriptions; *Program Development; *Rural Areas; Screening Tests; Student Evaluation

Identifiers: *Family Infant and Toddler Project


Journal Articles
EJ554424 PS527241
The Project Approach in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms.
Greenwald, Carol; Hand, Jennifer
Dimensions of Early Childhood, v25 n4 p35-39 Fall 1997
ISSN: 1068-6177
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR98

Describes a program for a project approach in inclusive classrooms which balances the needs of children with and without developmental delays and provides effective and efficient learning. Provides guidance in choosing the project topic, introducing ideas, implementing project activities, completing the project, and evaluating the experience. (SD)

Descriptors: Child Development; *Class Activities; Developmental Delays; Developmental Disabilities; Disabilities; *Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; Normalization (Disabilities); *Preschool Education; *Regular and Special Education Relationship; Special Education; Special Needs Students; *Student Projects

Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


EJ547961 PS526717
The Fiber Project: One Teacher's Adventure toward Emergent Curriculum.
Booth, Cleta
Young Children, v52 n5 p79-85 Jul 1997
ISSN: 0044-0728
Document Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE (080); PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC97

Describes a preschool classroom project intended to explore cotton and wool production. Describes the planning process, project implementation and evaluation, collaboration with other teachers, additional fiber-related center activities, and how the project provided opportunities for work in many curriculum areas. The fabric project concluded with the creation of a class quilt. (KB)

Descriptors: Class Activities; Learning Activities; *Personal Narratives; Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Education

Identifiers: Cotton Production; *Emergent Curriculum; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Textile Fibers; Webbing (Thematic); Wool


EJ538098 PS525986
A Multicultural Family Project for Primary.
Gutwirth, Valerie
Young Children, v52 n2 p72-78 Jan 1997
ISSN: 0044-0728
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUN97

Suggests that teachers can work with children's families to study likenesses and differences in their respective cultures. Details a class project for 7- to 8-year-olds whereby children start with self-portraits and construct masks of their faces. Provides sample mask project timeline and steps for making masks out of paper molds and a shredded-paper-and-glue medium. (AMC)

Descriptors: *Art Activities; Art Expression; Art Materials; *Childrens Art; Classroom Techniques; *Cultural Awareness; *Cultural Differences; Early Childhood Education; Elementary School Students; Family Characteristics; *Multicultural Education; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; Teaching Methods

Identifiers: *Family Activities; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


EJ533095 PS525779
To Build a House: Designing Curriculum for Primary-Grade Children.
Harris, Teresa T.; Fuqua, J. Diane
Young Children, v52 n1 p77-83 Nov 1996
ISSN: 0044-0728
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR97

Presents a social studies unit on house building for 5- to 7-year olds. Discusses rationale for the project approach and outlines unit components. Describes the three components of the curriculum planning strategy: (1) impression activities; (2) extension activities; and (3) expression activities. Discusses experiences during unit implementation and assessment through observation of children's behaviors and products. (KDFB)

Descriptors: Childrens Literature; Class Activities; Curriculum Development; Elementary School Curriculum; *Housing; Housing Industry; Observation; Primary Education; Program Evaluation; Self Expression; *Social Studies; Units of Study; *Young Children

Identifiers: Anecdotal Records; Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Representational Thinking; Symbolic Thinking


EJ533090 PS525774
Teaching All Children: Four Developmentally Appropriate Curricular and Instructional Strategies in Primary-Grade Classrooms.
Burchfield, David W.
Young Children, v52 n1 p4-10 Nov 1996
ISSN: 0044-0728
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR97

Describes four child-focused and child-sensitive curricular and instructional strategies to increase teachers' understanding of children and quality of teaching: (1) multiple intelligences and different ways of knowing; (2) the Project Approach; (3) the writer's workshop; and (4) balancing reading strategies and cueing systems. Discusses strengths, unique features, and application of each approach. (KDFB)

Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; *Educational Strategies; Elementary School Curriculum; Primary Education; Reading Instruction; *Student Centered Curriculum; Student Projects; Writing Workshops; *Young Children

Identifiers: Child Centered Education; *Developmentally Appropriate Programs; Diversity (Student); Gardner (Howard); Heterogeneous Classrooms; Multiple Intelligences; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


EJ533030 PS525650
Learning about Moths.
Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine
Texas Child Care, v20 n2 p32-37 Fall 1996
ISSN: 1049-9466
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAR97

Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

Descriptors: Art Activities; Class Activities; Discovery Learning; Discovery Processes; Early Childhood Education; Handicrafts; Integrated Curriculum; *Learning Activities; Mathematics Achievement; Mathematics Skills; Movement Education; Music Activities; *Outdoor Education; Puppetry; Science Activities; Sciences; Young Children

Identifiers: *Nature; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


EJ528148 PS525237
Can We Adapt the Philosophies and Practices of Reggio Emilia, Italy, for Use in American Schools?
Firlik, Russell
Early Childhood Education Journal, v23 n4 p217-20 Sum 1996
ISSN: 1082-3301
Available From: UMI
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC96

Describes the Reggio Emilia (Italy) model for preschool education. Addresses the perceived difficulties of transferring the program to U.S. schools, focusing on differences in patterns of thinking, educational attitudes, and cultural conventions between the two cultures. Provides perspectives for change and adaptation. (SD)

Descriptors: Class Activities; *Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; Constructivism (Learning); *Cultural Differences; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Change; Educational Innovation; *Educational Philosophy; Foreign Countries; Learning Processes; Learning Theories; Nontraditional Education; Play; Student Centered Curriculum; Student Projects; *Teaching Methods; Young Children

Identifiers: Child Centered Education; Dewey (John); Gardner (Howard); Holistic Education; *Italy (Reggio Emilia); Learning Environment; Multiple Intelligences; Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach; Social Constructivism; Social Learning Theory; Thorndike (Edward L); Whole Child Approach


EJ523472 PS524970
Lilian Katz on the Project Approach.
Scholastic Early Childhood Today, v10 n6 p20-21 Mar 1996
ISSN: 1070-1214
Document Type: POSITION PAPER (120); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP96

Interview with Lilian Katz, one of the foremost authorities on the project approach to learning. Discusses the misconceptions and advantages of the project approach, the teacher's role in project-based work, and the qualities teachers need to insure its success. Gives historical background on the development of the approach, and some common stumbling blocks to its successful implementation. (TJQ)

Descriptors: *Active Learning; *Discovery Learning; Early Childhood Education; Educational Trends; *Experiential Learning; Interviews; *Learning Activities; *Student Projects; Teacher Role

Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


EJ523471 PS524969
Learning through Projects.
Borgia, Eileen
Scholastic Early Childhood Today, v10 n6 p22-29 Mar 1996
ISSN: 1070-1214
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP96

Offers guidelines for creating and implementing an age-appropriate project that fits children's needs, interests, and surroundings. Using the example of a supermarket project, outlines the four stages of a project's development--preliminary planning, getting started, investigation and discovery, and wrapping up the project. Gives tips on learning goals, topic selection, involving families, and using documentation. (TJQ)

Descriptors: *Active Learning; *Discovery Learning; Early Childhood Education; *Experiential Learning; Family Involvement; Field Trips; *Learning Activities; Parent Participation; *Student Projects

Identifiers: Age Appropriateness; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


EJ516731 PS524341
The Project Approach: A Museum Exhibit Created by Kindergartners
Diffily, Deborah
Young Children, v51 n2 p72-75 Jan 1996
ISSN: 0044-0728
Available From: UMI
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY96

Describes one kindergarten classroom's experience creating a rock and fossils museum exhibit and the excitement and learning that occurred when the children become directly involved in the project. Using the framework of the project approach, math, science, art, writing, and social studies content areas were involved. (ET)

Descriptors: *Class Activities; *Exhibits; *Experiential Learning; Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; Primary Education; *Student Participation; *Student Projects; Teaching Methods

Identifiers: Dewey (John); Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Rocks



EJ505502 PS523296
Projects in the Early Years.
Hartman, Jeanette A.; Eckerty, Carolyn
Childhood Education, v71 n3 p141-47 Spr 1995
ISSN: 0009-4056
Available From: UMI
Document Type: TEACHING GUIDE (052); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT95

Suggests that the growing interest in project work in early childhood education is in response to the call for developmentally appropriate practices. Defines projects and discusses the beginning of a project. Discusses the three phases of the "construction site/house project" by four- and five-year olds and provides responses to frequently asked questions about projects. (DR)

Descriptors: Class Activities; Definitions; Early Childhood Education; *Outcomes of Education; Preschool Children; *Teaching Methods

Identifiers: Developmentally Appropriate Programs; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


EJ503734 PS523431
Project Work with Diverse Students: Adapting Curriculum Based on the Reggio Emilia Approach.
Abramson, Shareen; And Others
Childhood Education, v71 n4 p197-202 Sum 1995
ISSN: 0009-4056
Available From: UMI
Document Type: PROJECT DESCRIPTION (141); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP95

Presents key features of the Reggio Emilia approach and its adaptation to early childhood curriculum in the United States. Discusses using projects as a teaching strategy for diverse students to encourage language and conceptual development. Gives prominence to visual languages. Describes project activities involving student teachers and children. (BAC)

Descriptors: *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; Educational Innovation; *Instructional Materials; Integrated Curriculum; Language Acquisition; Multicultural Education; *Student Projects; *Teaching Methods; Visual Arts

Identifiers: Culturally Different Students; Italy (Reggio Emilia); *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach


EJ471316 PS520848
What Do Parents Think about Kindergarten?
Karwowska-Struczyk, Malgorzata
International Journal of Early Years Education, v1 n2 p33-44 Fall
1993
Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB94

Describes a study that examined parental involvement in kindergarten in Poland and that is part of an international project based on Bronfenbrenner's theory of the ecology of human development. Details parents' opinions about kindergarten and their expectations of both teachers and the setting in which their child has been placed. (BB)

Descriptors: Curriculum; *Educational Environment; Foreign Countries; *Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; *Parent Attitudes; *Parent Participation; Parent Responsibility; Parent School Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Primary Education

Identifiers: *Parent Expectations; *Poland


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